For each of these layers I am using references from books and learning materials I have used while at EKU.

Click on the 7 layers of projects above to see seven layers of projects.

Click on the 7 layers of security above to see seven layers of security issues.

The Physical Layer: Describes how the data gets transmitted over a communication medium. This layer defines how long each piece of data is and the translation of each into the electrical pulses or light impulses that are sent over the wires, or the radio waves that are sent through the air. It decides whether data travels unidirectionally or bidirectionally across the hardware. It also relates electrical, optical, mechanical, and functional interfaces to the cable.


Docter, Quentin; Dulaney, Emmett; Skandier, Toby. CompTIA A+ Complete Study Guide: Exams 220-901 and 220-902 (p. 267). Wiley. Kindle Edition.